Ammunition is a flammable and explosive dangerous material. In addition to the prevention of water, ultraviolet rays, mold, insects and airborne water vapor, oxygen, sulfur dioxide, salt and other harmful substances in the transport and storage, To prevent static electricity, electromagnetic and vibration hazards.
How to improve ammunition packaging to meet the basic requirements for ammunition transportation, storage and use is an urgent task for ammunition packaging researchers. Foreign military forces, especially the U.S. military, have relatively early research and packaging, advanced technologies, and packaging materials and packaging technologies that meet the above requirements. Their experience and technology are worthy of our military’s reference. The following describes the characteristics and development trends of foreign ammunition packaging.
1 Characteristics of Ammunition Packaging for Foreign Armies 1.1 Improvement of the Management System The ammunition packaging management system in the developed countries of the munitions industry in the world is relatively complete. For example, the United States Armed Forces Logistics Command has set up a joint packaging technical coordination group (JTCG/PKG) responsible for the packaging of the three armed forces. The technical coordination also established a military packaging technical school to provide technical training for all personnel engaged in military packaging; in the case of ammunition packaging, the Task Force of Packaging and Storage (PPTG), which belongs to the JCAP, is responsible for the ammunition packaging. Packaging technology coordination of conventional ammunition for the three armed forces. The Ministry of Defense of the British Army has set up a Central Packaging Department (CPU) responsible for the management of military packaging standards and packaging design and adjustment. The CPU performs its duties through the following activities:
(1) management of packaging design and technical approval of packaging products;
(2) standard formulation and interpretation of packaging materials and technical methods;
(3) Management of environmental testing equipment and training centers;
(4) Back-up and monitoring of internal and external research.
1.2 Standard packaging standards for ammunition packaging After research, the foreign military started earlier in this regard and has considered this issue as the center of packaging research for decades. Taking the U.S. military as an example, the U.S. military began systematic research on ammunition packaging from the 40s and developed a series of packaging technology standards. For example, the packaging method “MIL-P-116” lays the foundation for the development of packaging. In the 1960s, some standards were established for the needs of the military, such as packaging, handling, storage and transportation of “MIL-STD-1367” systems/equipment. Requirements, "MIL-STD-1319" affect the characteristics of transport and packaging and handling equipment design features, "FED-STD-102" storage and protection of internal packaging and packaging grade; these standards from the macro control of the protective packaging of equipment Claim. They are related to several other major military standards that are already playing a role in technical guidance, such as "MIL-STD-794" equipment and parts packaging and internal packaging, "FED-STD-101" packaging testing methods, "MIL-STD-810" environment The test methods, etc. cooperate with each other to form a strict standard system for the development, production, ordering, handling, storage, and transportation of military packaging on a macroscopic and microscopic scale.
1.3 Packaging materials and methods 1.3.1 Use of moisture-proof materials The aluminum-plastic moisture-proof bag (set) is used as the inner packaging of medium and small-caliber cannonballs, missiles and torpedoes. The packaging method is used to evade production and heat sealing technology.
1.3.2 Using Flexible Packaging Envelope Technology The flexible packaging envelope technology can not only store piles of ammunition, missiles, and torpedoes, but also can store large-scale military equipment such as aircrafts, tanks, electronic devices, radars, artillery, chariots, etc. in the open air. The envelope system is generally composed of a sealing system. , Drying system and relative humidity detection system. Compared with warehouse oil sealing and storage, envelope sealing has the following advantages: It can control the relative humidity within the envelope within 50% for a long time; it can be put into use quickly; with good economy, the storage cost can be reduced by 80%.
1.3.3 Static Dehumidification Technology and Corrosion Inhibitor Anti-Rust Technology Static dehumidification technology is to place silica gel, Montto soil, or molecular sieve to absorb moisture in the inner and outer packaging containers; Corrosion inhibitor corrosion protection technology is to increase corrosion inhibitors in sealed packaging. The rust resistance of the package.
1.3.4 Using wire bundle wooden boxes instead of wooden boxes as outer packing boxes In the United States, silk-packed wooden boxes are gradually replacing wooden boxes and are widely used as external packaging boxes for fuzes, shells, ammunition, and missiles. Compared with ordinary wooden boxes, wire bundle wooden boxes are light in weight, small in volume (not small in volume), good in performance, simple in structure, and easy to use. They save a lot of wood, transport costs and storage costs, and improve warehouses and transportation tools (cars, boats). And aircraft) space utilization.
1.3.5 Utilizing Containerized Packaging Technology, Packaging, Transportation, Storage, and Use Integration The U.S. military puts around a ton of shells into a large container that is easy to open and close. This package has fewer consumables, more charges, and more. It is convenient to use and saves freight and other characteristics, and basically meets the requirements of transportation, storage and use. (to be continued)