Beijing time, October 19th, according to the National Geographic website, the selected atlas of this National Geographic includes the latest Martian flood remnants, beautiful lunar halo and aurora, and others from the Earth, Mars and Beautiful images deep in the universe.

1. Remains of the Martian flood

This is the remains of ancient eroded landforms at the bottom of Ares Vallis, or Mars Valley, most likely caused by the erosion of liquid water. This erosive landform stretches nearly 1,700 kilometers in the highlands of southern Mars. In this picture, a part of the Ares Valley can be seen. There are many teardrop-shaped "islands", which can be imagined when the flood washed away through these trenches.

This high-resolution image was recently published by the European Space Agency, and its Mars Express probe took this image at an altitude of about 300 kilometers from the Martian surface.

2. Gamma Ray Crab Nebula

This is a newly released photo of the Crab Nebula from the Hubble Space Telescope, superimposed on a schematic diagram of a pulsar emitting intense radiation from the poles. Pulsar is a kind of neutron star rotating at high speed.

The Crab Nebula is a relic of the supernova explosion in 1054. Ancient Chinese astronomers at that time had witnessed records and passed down. We now know that supernovae are violent explosions that occur when a star dies. The dense debris left by this supernovae is now at the core of the Crab Nebula.

Recently, scientists have observed this target using an array of ultra-high-energy radiation imaging telescopes located in Arizona, USA, and found that it is emitting intense gamma radiation with energy levels up to hundreds of billions of electron volts, which is medical X-ray radiation. Millions of times the intensity.

3. Moon halo over Hawaii

On October 8 this year, over the Kilauea Volcano in Hawaii, a beautiful halo appeared around a bright moon. Moon halo is a mysterious phenomenon that occurs when moonlight passes through the slender ice crystals in the thin upper atmospheric cirrus clouds. Because these ice crystals do not have a specific direction, they will refract moonlight in any direction around them, forming a ring-shaped moon halo.

Photographer Sean King struggled to search for the moonlight rainbow but found nothing. When he was about to give up and walked to his car, he looked up and finally glanced at the moon. At this moment, he suddenly found that Moonlight "appears to be surrounded by clouds".

4. The failed cluster

Astronomers used the "Pleiades" telescope in Hawaii and the Very Large Telescope in Chile to observe that the young star cluster NGC 1333 was filled with "failed" stars.

The latest recent deep-sky surveys have discovered more than 20 brown dwarfs in the area between the NGC 1333 star cluster and the Ophiuchus r cluster. Brown dwarfs are stars that freely wander in space. They are very special because their mass is generally several times that of Jupiter, but they cannot reach the temperature and pressure conditions necessary to cause internal nuclear fusion, so they cannot become true stars. It can only be embarrassedly located between the planet and the star, which is why astronomers call it a "failed" star.

The researchers were surprised to find that, together with the dozens of newly discovered brown dwarfs, nearly half of the members of the NGC 1333 cluster are composed of these "failed" stars.

5. Aurora over Iceland

This is October 9, and the polar lights illuminate the sky over Iceland. Photographer Olgeir Andresson described it as "a breathtaking view." This is actually a luminous phenomenon caused by high-energy particles from the sun burst when they hit atmospheric particles over the polar region. When the charged particles emitted by the sun enter the Earth's magnetic field, many particles will be captured and converge along the lines of magnetic force to the Earth's poles, where they collide with particles in the upper air, causing the gas particles to be excited and emit light.

6. Milestone of Opportunity

This is a look back at NASA's Opportunity rover after arriving at the Fenjin crater. This sense of vicissitudes is immediately reminiscent of the ancient Roman Boulevard. This is the 309 photos and a video in a video released by NASA recently. This batch of materials completely records everything that happened on the road of Opportunity from Victoria Crater to Endeavour Crater.

The rover was originally planned to travel only on the surface of Mars for 3 months, but now it has been stubbornly traversing the surface of this red planet for 3 years, with a total distance of more than 21 kilometers, far exceeding the design life.

7. Rise from the sky

On October 7, China used the Long March-3B carrier rocket at the Xichang Satellite Launch Center to successfully send a French-made communication satellite into a predetermined orbit. The European satellite, Eutelsat-W3C, will be used to provide services for broadcasting, communications and broadband construction.

8. Overlooking the Yukon Delta

Like an unfolded blood vessel, this is where the Yukon River delta is injected into the cold Bering Sea. The image comes from NASA's Land Satellite 7.

The Yukon River originates in British Columbia, Canada, flows through the Yukon region and Alaska and eventually enters the sea. In the southwestern region of Alaska, the Yukon River delta has extensive tundra tundra.

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